This paper discusses and analyzes, in a military and strategic context, the bilateral relations between Turkey and Russia, the expected implications of these relations, and their impact on a range of international and regional issues, including Syria, the Caucasus, Libya, Crimea, and Ukraine. The paper begins with a historical introduction to understand the nature and bounds of the Turkish-Russian bilateral relations.

We look at the relations that both countries maintain with regard to other regional causes. In an analytical and descriptive method, we highlight the importance of the strategic competition, their objectives in each cause, and the policies, means, and strategies that Moscow and Ankara have followed to foresee the future of bilateral relations in terms of the interactions of this conflict and the balance of regional and international power:

  • The Russian/Ottoman military conflict
  • The year after the breakdown of the two empires and the principles of geopolitical rivalry
  • The relations during the Cold War and its geopolitical impact
  • Turkey and the Russian Federation, their rapprochement and divergence.
  • Erdogan and Putin, concerns of history and issues of geopolitical discord.
  • The most important geopolitical differences in Erdogan-Putin’s strategy:
  • The Syrian issue and the Putin-Erdogan strategy.
  • The Azerbaijani-Armenian conflict over the Nagorno-Karabakh region.
  • Crimea and eastern Ukraine are a renewed historical conflict:
    • Putin and his strategies to dominate the Crimea.
    • Erdogan and his alignment behind the Western position.
  • Russian-Turkish intervention in the Libyan war.

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