A writer and researcher in Historical & Social Affairs
This is a research paper that highlights several approaches to the wisdom concept in the Qur’an text and the general concept of philosophy science. This is to illustrate that some of the Islamists position of philosophy science is not true; and confirms that there is no opposed session to the purposes of philosophy as a knowledge with the Quranic text, this is through the following themes:
What is the science of philosophy and how we understand it?
- Early philosophers in the world.
- The Greeks Philosophers.
- Philosophers of the East.
- Philosophy in Judaism and Christianity.
- Islam and the position of philosophy.
- Does the concept of philosophy contradicts with the Quranic text?
- Approaches, incompatibilities and panting scholars in their position from philosophy.
The mother of science “philosophy” have experienced a constant attack on all its theories, and its practitioners “Philosophers”, from the very first moment when religious scholars, especially Muslim scholars, assuming Philosophy a form of atheism & idolatry, and it separates the self-divine component of the universe and its creatures, whom are responsible for human and rational self-assuming that it has its own interpretations about the universe emergence, and the perception towards it, and the study of human beings (towards an inside look, and external surroundings), based on science.
What is the philosophy?
The Philosophy Science, as it stated in most references, it’s an expression compound of (Philo) means Hellenized (lover) and (Sovia- Sophie ) which means (Wisdom), which means the word (Philosopher) means (the lover of wisdom), and It also indicates the spokesman, and philosophy then means (love of wisdom) And (pronunciation of wisdom).
By definition and its origin, all shows that philosophy was considered as special standing science itself, by the Greeks, and through them, this science has spread to the rest of the world in the ancient and modern times, although the assets existence of philosophy in the ancient Orient civilizations that preceded the Greek civilization in several centuries, but it was not framed or determined as a science Like other sciences, like what happened in ancient Greece times.
Philosophy addressed three main paths: the universe, human-being, and life. From these paths the rest have branched into other sciences, including religious science. which has spread in the primitive and civilized societies, even before the emergence of monotheistic religions, divine status, and from the first moment in which the primitive human worshiped (totem), Which was the result of the human philosophical thinking of life and the universe and his ignorance of the science behind nature (Metaphysics), especially when exposed to nature factors, such as rain storms or strong wind tempest, or kinds of diseases; or even to what is even more complex from these factors – Death.
Hence, human have learned engineering art to build a simple house that protected him from the nature danger, as a result of philosophy (wisdom). Later in time, reached to the idea of agriculture and domestication in order to provide daily basic food needs, as a result of wisdom. And the foundations of the first communities to feel the strength and stamina, as a result of wisdom. Also, carving wood and rocks to build walls and forts to protect the society he (the human) founded, as a result of wisdom as well. And invented the science of medicine to address diseases and sickness human beings faces, as well the death faced citizens of human’s community, as well this is the result of wisdom.
Prior to all, the human being concluded to the idea of burying dead individuals with respect and appreciation, this is also a result of his belief in life after death, also as a result philosophy (wisdom).
As a result to the mentioned earlier, and the linkage of all kinds of knowledge to Philosophy, hence it was called “the mother science – Philosophy”.
Historians have divided Greek philosophers into two parts: the first, pre-Socrates, where the most important philosophers of those are: the philosopher and poet (Parmenides 510 BC – 560 BC), the philosopher and mathematician (Pythagoras, 495 BC – 570 BC), and the owner of the infinite concept of philosophy (Zeno of Elea, 430 BC – 490 BC), a physicist and philosopher (Empedocles to 430 BC to 490 BC) the owner of the four material elements theory, that consists of four basic elements: earth, air, fire, water.
Second: from Socrates time and beyond most notably, of course, the owner of the philosopher stage (Socrates, 399 BC – 469 BC), which provided a new perspective entirely to achieve practical results through application of philosophy in humans daily lives, which was largely absent in the philosophers approach pre-Socrates time. Socrates distanced himself away from materials continuing speculation ran by former philosophers themselves analysis and assimilation, and tried to establish a moral system based on the realization of the human mind rather than the delivery of diverse religious beliefs and dissonant in nature.
Ultimately Socrates led his beliefs and philosophy by realistic approach to the death penalty. However, it can be said that philosophical highlight, primarily, is what made him a personal iconic in the history.
After Socrates, comes his follower (Plato 347 BC – 427 BC), which went on a merger scale between the two main philosophical approaches: metaphysics, and philosophers whom deported of pre-Socrates era and beliefs about the nature of Socratic moral beliefs.
As for Plato, the finest example was the (good-will) which is considered the source of existence and knowledge. His work was mostly dominated by the (good-will), in particular its most important (the Republic) – A combination of multiple aspects of science ethics, political philosophy, metaphysics, and others which are all poured in the process of philosophy, methodology, and meaningful template.
The Third (Aristotle, 322 BC – 384 BC), the most influential student of Plato. He built on the facts of Aristotle interpretations that are gained from life experience, and this is different from the direction of his teacher, who preferred approach, surpassing the tangibles style. Aristotle proved the ability of written fertile and linguistic creative, as he re-shaped basic concepts, and re-structured the areas of knowledge that worked out most of it. Aristotle is a symbol of Greek philosophers, as his influence was spread beyond a place and time borders.
However, (Thales 546 BC – 620 BC) is considered as the philosophers God-Gather of the Greeks to many historians, and sits on top of the fundamental role in the enriching the soil of Greek philosophy that grew out of which subsequent generations of famous thinkers, theorists, logicians, philosophers, and workers of metaphysics.
The case passed by the researcher on highlighting philosophers with the most important aspects of the philosophical science worked at most they could to brief far as possible and include the science of philosophy in the most important interpretation in the attention of human thoughts, spiritually and physically, during the course of its history, and then later in time discussed within the religious context.
Philosophers of the Levant:
Philosophers of the Asian continent are different, from whom witnessed philosophers of the Greeks, that the peoples who learned from their philosophy promised them prophets and messengers, but this belief surpassed those peoples to include a large proportion of scholars from the world and its scientists and philosophers, including Muslims whom many of them based their assumptions to the dignified verses of Quran such as: (We have sent you in truth, and there is no nation with no praise and warning); (Fater: 24).
God Almighty has mentioned that those apostles consecutive, each messenger followed by another messenger: (Then we sent our messengers in sequence All came to a nation, they denied him so we followed Some of them and Some let them the talks and a distance for a Folk does not Believeَ) (44 the believers). And more verses denote the hypothesis (prophecy) of these philosophers, and others, perhaps some philosophers of the Greeks of them, is in the verse: (We sent messengers before you, some of them we told you their stories and some of them did not, and there is no messenger whom could come with a verse without the permission of God, so if the God’s command arrived; it takes the right place and losses the failures) (Ghafer 78).
As can be seen, the last verse, and its predecessors proves that the prophets and apostles have gone all over the whole earth, and they are more than those who said their names and their stories in the Quran.
In addition to the premise of the “prophecy” of the Asian philosophers and their message, who we will mention most importantly, still there are people who believe in them and embrace (literati – religion) until the moment, and they are counted as large proportion of the world population.
The first of those philosophers is (Confucius), considered by the Chinese, as we mentioned earlier, a prophet and a messenger. His thoughts and teachings have been the basis of their faith and believes, since it emerged in the early fifth century BC, through the past 25 centuries.
The moral and political doctrine in Confucius teachings is summed up that any social system properly integrated is based on providing individuals with good manners, and this is achieved with education and teachings as well as the presence of the good governor whom will create an upright, and be a role model for his people. Confucius believes that ethics in the society reached to the desired level, it would enrich laws, regulation and the judiciary.
The philosopher (Buddha), who was born in 560 BC, which is no less important than Confucius. Buddha is the founder of the Buddhist religion, or as called by some the Buddhist philosophy. The estimated number of believers about 300 million people, divided between India, China, Japan, Tibet, Korea and other nearby areas.
The most highlighted ideas and beliefs of Buddha is the idea that life is a set of pleasures and decorations that are moving towards the same humans as it is inherent from the desires called (The Karma), and the means to get rid of karma is severity and killing desires in self-starting until the human reaches the stage of the spiritual purity and mental purity which he named (Nirvana), And the peak of this case when a man dies and travels away from this world.
Buddha have perceived the relationship of creation with the creator, as a lover with his love, whom he had not seen, rather his focus on ethics and laws as a method for life.
The third is the philosopher (Zoroaster), also a contemporary of the Buddha, his philosophy – religion have been published in the Persia area, which was adjacent to the followers of the Buddhist religion at the time, before shrinking into the current state of Iran. The Zoroaster teachings have spread during the sixth and fifth centuries BC, and expanded to become the official religion of Persia until the Islamic conquest (seventh century AD), who executed the Persian rule Sassanian, to replace the religion of Islam instead of Zoroastrianism.
Muslims have promised Zoroastrianism as one of the (Al-Mjoos) teams, those who believe in the idea of (Al-mathnwiah) that view the existence of God, which represents the good and the devil, and part of them sanctified fire, which they consider a symbol of light, it has become the recipe of Al-Mjoos associated to the Zoroastrianism and limited to them.
The Zoroastrianism enjoys a strong social positive ethics; where productivity is the salt of life, but the basis of human is not only expressed, by what he is saying, or what he does, rather in his thoughtss, as it must be for the people to defeat doubts and bad desires and greed conquered with complacent, anger with serenity and tranquility, envy with kindness and charity, and the need for vigilance and conflict to peace, truth with lies).
The God Almighty, In Zoroastrianism, He is the greatest founder, the best and the Supreme, only good-will is from him, but the evil goes back to the devil.
Perhaps the most prominent aspect, is that Islam perceived and dealt with the followers of Zoroaster as the people of the book; as glimpsed in some of his teachings some of the monotheism features, rebirth, Heaven and Hell.
Muslims argued on the (written) followers of Zoroaster through what is mentioned in the Quran and Sunnah, including the verse: (Those who believe, those who follow the Al-Sabian and the Christians and the Magoos, and Polytheists God separates them on the Day of Resurrection, Allah is witness of everything) Hajj: 17, As Almighty God inflicted the Magoos people of the Book people, and separated them from the infidels (who have been involved).
In some other Muslim teachings, it was mentioned in the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet peace be upon him in which he said: (What live only born on instinct, and his parents Judaism him, Christian him or Majoos him … to the end of the conversation). This is an inclusiveness of the Prophet Muhammad to the people of the Book the Majooss with Jews and Christians, and also told them, what is stated in Sahih Bukhari: (treat them as the people of the book). Muslims have also known as people of the Book through Omar ibn Al-Khattab and Ali Ibn Abi Talib, when he took the tribute from them may Allah bless their souls.
Before moving to the next section, the researcher wish to refer to a subject may help the reader to draw a rough picture of what was mentioned about the three philosophers earlier.
The early Muslims divide the dominant forces in that time to two forces, namely the “Romans” and the “Persians”, who shared an influence and control of the ancient world at the time before the spread of the Islamic conquests. The Roman name was generally called at the geographical area located in the northern and western parts of the Arabian Peninsula, and the name of the Persians was called East geographical area in general.
From the religious point of view, the Christianity was is the official religion of the Roman in general, despite the presence of heathens distributed here and there within the territory of the Byzantine Empire, Roman. However, the Parsee, was calling the religion of the peoples of the eastern part which is controlled by the Persians.
(For the followers of Judaism, Muslims have not seen them as an international force or religious power, but a group tribal religious limited its own social system within a dominant religious forces lands, whether it is Christian, Zoroastrianism or Islamic, because Judaism is not a missionary religion like-wise the other three religions, rather they represent always a class of minority groups within major communities).
What the researcher wishes to mention is that: as Parsee religions (the written) where its adherents the Islamic message, that was referred to in the Quranic text and the Hadith. It is very given that the meaning of it, in addition to the Zoroastrians, the followers of other Oriental religions (Alkonfoiush and Buddhism), and in particular that the Persians had controlled large areas where followers of the earlier mentioned philosophies, which also includes (Almtnoah) idea in some of their teachings. However, it is a quite natural for Muslims to call Persians as Majoos specifically excluding other regions (India, Sindh and beyond the river region), that is because the Persian state was the dominant adjacent to the Islamic Arab force at the beginning of its deployment, at the same time, they were the first crowd Muslims clashed with at the time the eastern conquests.
Moreover, the Qur’an has never mentioned the Persians or the Persian state in the surah, although the Roman were mentioned and allocated an entire Surat in the Quran. However, in the Quran pointed the Majoosi as a religion, as stated in earlier verses, but did not locks them to other nationals i.e. Persians, which reinforce the research point of view that Majoose was a comprehensive belief from the peoples of the East.
Overview Philosophy within the context of Judaism and Christianity
Ancient sources did not indicate the existence of a dispute or an actual collision between Jewish adherents and the followers of philosophy science, it is simply that the Jewish religion is an ethnic certain, and not a missionary religion, such as Christianity and Islamic, and the prior the Majoosi, as well as other religions / communities. Hence, a Jew remains a Jew regardless how influenced by the philosophy science. This influence would not change the nature of a Jewish believer ideas and principles (nationwide / religious views). Additionally, the mentioned above, does not deny any philosophical influence on the Jews, and their intellectual and religious inspiration. Number of sources support this highlight, however the research does not intend to address this issue.
Nevertheless, It worth mentioning that Jews have clashed with early Christians and accused them of heresy (Which were usually pointed to Philosophers as a result of their conflicting ideas with religious defaults within their communities since the fifth century BC until mid of the second millennium AD).
After the spread of Christianity, particularly in the European continent, between the fourth and sixth centuries; the followers of philosophical – mostly scientists and thinkers in various fields of science- to various forms of repression and torture as a result of the control of the religious concept in the European continent in the Middle Ages, this concept have ceased the wheel of cognitive development, taking advantage of the religious feeling imposed on the people of Europe, and for fear of turning the centers of power from the clergy to the men of science and wisdom. Even though, later in time, modern philosophers were able to still the European Continent to the renaissance ears.
At that phase of time, Islam was witnessing the peak of its geographical and cultural extensiveness, in West Asia, North Africa, and in the Iberian Peninsula (Al-Andalus).
However, when Europe come into the renaissance era have led to the emergence of a number of modern philosophers such as the followers of Judaism and Christianity, whom they were the re-pillar to the spread of modern philosophy all around the world.
Islam and philosophy
Does Philosophy contradict with the religious text in Islam?
In fact, what have driven the author to walk in the path in this research is a specific word which have raised my attention to several aspects. This word was always presented every time the researcher read through verses of the Quran.
The term “Wisdom” in the Quran between philosophy and observers interpretations.
God Almighty says in the Qur’an: “It is He who has raised among the illiterate (Arabs), a Messenger from themselves, to recite to them His verses, to purify them, and to teach them the Book and the Wisdom, though before that they were in clear error” (Al-Juma’ah; 2)
In Verse Other: “Allah has surely been gracious to the believers when He sent among them a Messenger from themselves to recite to them His verses, to purify them, and to teach them the Book and the Wisdom (prophetic sayings), though before that they were in clear error” (Al’Imran;164).
As well as almighty said: “Our Lord, send among them a Messenger from them who shall recite to them your verses and teach them the Book and wisdom, and purify them; you are the Mighty, the Wise” (Al-Baqara 129).
Here we come to realize, there is no difference between all of the interpreters that what is meant by (the book) in the verse is the Quran, as well as what is meant by Illiterate, which is indicated to (Arabs), However, the question remain as what is the meaning of (wisdom) in the context of the Quran?
Many interpreters such as Al-Tabari, Ibn Katheer, Al-Saadi, and Al-Qourtobi in the definition of the word “Wisdom” in the Qura’an as it is (Al-suna), however they did not mention in their interpretation what indicated (jurisprudence in religion).
On the other hand, an interpreter, called Ibn Ashoura did not explain the word wisdom, rather, he added to it Al-Sharia, by saying: “he teaches them the wisdom and Al-Sharia”.
Hereafter, the research was able to gather three points of view on the “wisdom” word interpretation in Quran. The first opinion (which most interpreters agree upon) wisdom is the prophet Mohammad Sunaa, another opinion indicates that wisdom in the jurisprudence in religion, and the third opinion says it is linked to the Islamic regulation.
Nevertheless, what did the critics said about the wisdom elsewhere in the verses of the Holy Quran?
The word “Wisdom” is present in different other verses where Almighty says:
- “Call to the Path of your Lord with wisdom and fine admonition. Dispute with them in the best manner” (Al-Nahl; 125).
- “He gives wisdom to whom He will” (Al-Baqra; 269).
- “That is of the wisdom your Lord has revealed to you” (Isra; 39).
- “We gave wisdom to Lokman (saying): ‘Give thanks to Allah’” (Luqman; 12).
- “We made his kingdom strong and gave him wisdom and decisive speech” (Saad; 20).
- “Remember the favor of Allah upon you, and what He sent down to you from the Book and Wisdom” (Al-Baqra; 231).
- “They routed them. David slew Goliath, and Allah bestowed on him the kingship and wisdom,) (Al-Baqra; 251).
“He will teach him the Book, the Wisdom, the Torah and the Bible” (Al’Imran; 48).
“We gave the family of Abraham the Book and Wisdom, and a great kingdom” (An-Nisaa; 54).
To start with the interpreters meanings of the word “wisdom” as it came in the verses above;
First: “Call to the Path of your Lord with wisdom and fine admonition. Dispute with them in the best manner” (Al-Nahl; 125). This verse was explained by Al-Qurtobi that Allah have ordered Prophet Mohammad peace be upon him to call for the religion of God and His laws gently. Nevertheless, Ibn katheer interpreted as the call for the non-believers in Islam to the Islamic religion from the book reveled to him (Quran and Sunnah). As well as consented by Al-Tabari: inspired by God that tells you through his book that have been brought down to you. Rather the interpreter Al-Saadi address this as: speak to all humans, but each upon their status, understanding, n sayings, and alignment. He also states that it is wise to call for a religion and wisdom through concreate science evidence, rather than ignorance, and most importantly is to be gentle and kind. Meanwhile, Ibn Ashoura have interpreted it as: the compact knowledge. This knowledge can’t be wrong by any probability, as this kind of knowledge “wisdom” can’t carry any kind of erroneousness; therefore “wisdom” have been outlined as: knowledge of the facts as it is according to the human energy, where no it can’t be confused with other similar facts, and does not infallible in ills and causes. Hence; it is a unified term or science that take people take into account in their beliefs and continuous reform that does not change.
Al-Tantawi have made an exclusive interpretation in explaining the verse unrelatedly to the inspiration time. (The verse have been inspired according to Al-Qourtobi during a pacifying period with infidels), and hence Al-Tanatwi said: in order for preachers in every time and place to be invited to the footpath of Almighty, to observe the conditions of people in their calling for religion, their temperament, and the capacity of their knowledge. Also, to speak to each community to the extent their minds in the manner that can influence them, and in the way that will satisfy their hearts and emotions.
Despite the conjunction of annotations between interpreters, but the meaning of (Wisdom) came in the different context of what came upon the verses in Al-Imran 164, and Al-Juma’ah 2, and Al-Baqara 129, which were mentioned earlier in this research.
Earlier interpretations highlighted the word (wisdom) as it is the Sunnah, jurisprudence and regulation of the religion, while its meaning came in verse 125 of Surah Al-Nahal, indicating the alignment of Ibn Katheer & Al-Tabari with the same interpretation as it is the Sunnah, jurisprudence and regulation of the religion.
Though, Al-Tantawi opinion as we mentioned earlier have freed the “Wisdom” interpretation unrelatedly to the inspiration time, rather highlighted “Wisdom” as a spiritual and religious need to call for the sake of Almighty in every place and time. Then he linked the wisdom conduct with all religious advocators, not only Prophet Mohammad Peace be upon him. This interpretation have raised a very important issue, we will cross through later in this research.
Another notable interpretation of the term “Wisdom” came in the below verse in Surah Al-Baqara: 296
- In the interpretation of the verse Jalalain mentioned, came the definition of wisdom: useful knowledge that leads to action.
- In the interpretation Facilitator: God pays injury in word and deed He wills of His slaves.
- The DSI, came in his interpretation differed in that the people of interpretation.
Some of them said, the term “wisdom” God mentioned in this place, is the Quran and Hadit. Al-Tabari, have conveyed an interpretation of Ibn Abbas, may Allah bliss his soul; through describing wisdom as the knowledge of Quran. Others said: (Fiqh & Quran), and also (the book) and (science with religion), And (the mind in religion)And (understanding), Others said (fear), Then ended Tabari interpretation of wisdom in this verse when some (prophecy) .
Given that al-Tabari said the overall meanings related to wisdom, this research will stop at this point of interpretations, especially the meanings most of it is repeated in other interpretation.
Noteworthy, interpretation of wisdom came in this verse to give number of meanings, some of which is identical, others which are different. Apart from the question of correspondence or difference in the meaning of wisdom, Almighty Creator, in this verse, may be granted to whom He pleases,. The interpretation of the verse will enhance our view:
Verse 12 of Surah Luqman: (We endowed Luqman with wisdom: “Give thanks to God.”)
This research will instruct also to explain the wisdom in this position, through what it included books of interpretation, as well as reportedly around in fiqh Al-Hadeeth:
- Interpretation of Jalalain wisdom and Luqman in this verse occur, Voord: (wisdom, science and religion, and Luqman has many wisdom sayings).
- Tabari: wisdom here, jurisprudence in religion and mind and the correct saying is not prophecy.
- Interpretation of Ibn Katheer: He cited the judgement, the Mujahid (in the description of Luqman): he was a good worker, but was not a prophet) Ibn katheer explained wisdom in this verse as: (understanding, science, expression and jurisprudence in Islam. But, Luqman was not a prophet).
- Al-Qurtobi Interpretation: the verse is consistent with the interpretation that Tabari wisdom here means (right beliefs and doctrine in religion and mind), But he continued: on behalf of prophet Mohammed, Ibn Omar may Allah be pleased with them said: Roy talk about Ibn (I heard the Prophet of Allah, peace be upon him say: Luqman was not a prophet, but a worker with a lot of good thinking certainty, love God and so god loved him, and blessed him with wisdom) .
Here, verse cutting removes all doubt after mentioning the hadith, and proved that (Wisdom) was not intended, only (sunnah) of Prophet Muhammad, as mentioned in interpretations of the first three verses that we mentioned in the beginning, and also were not -wisdom- limited to the advocates and prophets of God, and this is what we have explained through the explanations concerning the previous verse (269 of Sura Al-Baqaraa).
Wisdom appeared in great places in the Holy Qur’an, an in many books of interpretation and copy what was done refutations of the meanings of that word miraculous. A simple question to ask, but the answer need to go into validation and accuracy, it is difficult to overcome if we did not have another keys to it:
Are (wisdom- Philosophy) in Philosophy science incompatible with (wisdom) in Quran?
Its normal before starting to go to the midst of the answer to some reservations they ask this question, it is also normal that we find some frowns on the image approach between the love of wisdom, the translated word (philosophy) foreign origin, and(wisdom) Arabic word authentic, the source of many of the derivatives mentioned in the Holy Qur’an most of it. Not only that, but it is not surprising that this question is never classified within the prohibitions despite that our main dependence defended to the development of this question, the Quran was, and commentaries, and the Sunnah.
However, let us look at it slightly through religious, social and cultural perspective: God says in his verses: (Had your Lord willed, He could have made humanity one community, but they continue to differ – 118 Hud), and in the verse of Surah Yusuf that immediately followed, God Almighty says: (We have revealed it an Arabic Quran, so that you may understand.).
The first verse stating that God Almighty willing to make people of different nations, intellectually, religiously and socially, and linguistically as well. In the second verse of God Almighty speaks to us, our language, to tell us that the Almighty revealed the Quran in Arabic to the Arabs; as stated in the interpretation of the word al-Tabari.
As long as we have translated the word (Sophie – Velo) Into Arabic, we did not find only the word (Wisdom) versus (Sophie), it means that the word gives significance itself In two languages, despite different assets and roots, which is the will of God Almighty and his will, as stated in the last two verses.
Perhaps the most striking, if we go back to the beginning of this research, and we compare what it includes philosophy in other curricula, and scientific material, with interpretations and semantics (Wisdom) In the Quranic text, we will find a clear correspondence between the two concepts.
Before addressing the concepts and delve into the core issue, the researcher would like to highlight essential points: 1) we need to take into account that early philosophers – the Greeks- are ordinary human beings, and did not reach us that any of them was a prophet like other philosophers who appeared in mid-and-east Asia (Confucius, Buddha, Zoroaster), and that they lived through a historic stage where the worship of the gods prevailed and consecrated, like ancient civilizations and their surrounding communities, even if we assumed that heavenly religions did not exist in their areas (Although Qur’an mentioned the descent of the prophets and messengers to all nations), Or perhaps they had experienced some of them and then returned to the worship of the gods (idols), as happened almost before the Islamic message with the Arabs of the Arabian Peninsula, some of whom were on the religion of Abraham and some of the religion of Christ and then returned to the worship of idols, and some of them did not embrace any of those Religions and others despite their presence in their midst, but the Arabs before the advent of Islam, and despite the modernity of their time compared to the Greeks, could not produce thought based on wisdom – philosophy, despite their proficiency in the science of speech (poetry and rhetoric), but I did not read about a person called (wisdom) (Hakim) in the tribes of the Arabs before the emergence of Islam.
If we look at the experiences of the Greek philosophers, we will notice that their entire science was centered on the nature of the universe, the metaphysical phenomena (pre-Socrates philosophers), astronomy and physics (Archimedes), mathematics and geometry (Pythagoras), medicine (Hippocrates), psychology and its mysteries (Socrates), government systems (Plato’s Republic), and the arts of literature such as the poetry and rhetoric of most philosophers in Greece, as well as politics and other sciences. Most of them – if not all of them – did not pay attention to the gods that we find in the rest of the people..
When we read their interpretations of the universe, man, life and the arts, we often see a special faith rooted in each philosopher, as if he were searching for the one divine soul, the cause of his existence and his drive, through his philosophy and deep dive into the analysis of human soul and its surroundings. I think that this difference and distinction from the rest of the public is what made them respectful, and sometimes sanctified, within their societies lacking in the religious-spiritual aspect, so to speak, and behind the gods and mythical personalities who are weaving stories far from the perception of the human mind. In fact, a number of philosophers, both religious and cognitive, were active, and some of them paid for his life (wisdom-philosophy), which he loved, and tried hard to get through to that religious purity and spiritual being, Prophets and Messengers. Indeed, the philosophers did not spread only in those places which, if we assume that at some point they lacked the apostles, prophets and their heavenly messages, we witnessed the emergence of later generations of philosophers as a result of the corruption of their societies which flourished in its beginnings as a result of the celestial It is called the representation of the impurities of politics, systems, beliefs and outdated extremism, for example, what happened in Europe, which resulted in the philosophers as a result of the church’s corruption and political domination, and tyranny, and away from its spiritual role, and then entered the Renaissance by modern philosophers.
Before Europe, was the retreat of the Islamic state and its disintegration, in the East and West, and the weakness of its central administration, the neglect of its politicians to the affairs of the country and the people, and the spread of intrigues and sedition, and conversion of religious scholars to the elders of the sultans, and fight against scientists, and close the door of diligence, and enter concepts and interpretations strange to the spirit of Islam, Nationalist and sectarian tendencies, and religious extremism, led to the emergence of a class of philosophers, most of whom were acquainted with the product of Greek philosophy due to the translation movement that spread on the day of Andalusia, Baghdad, Damascus and Cairo at the height of its prosperity. However, the emergence of Arab philosophers at the time, and the spread of their ideas, had the active effect that later paved the way for the emergence of European Renaissance philosophers.
Approaches and contradictions and the rush of jurist’s scholars
The approach of wisdom is linked to all aspects of human life, as well as to the principles of ethics and legislation. These are the same lines that philosophy used, both ancient and modern, and for all peoples. As the Holy Quran bestowed the wisdom of a number of prophets and righteous worshipers who met the qualities of the wise men in the moral, cognitive, sensory and mental aspects that made them the focus of all segments of society and their belief in the message they carried. The difference between the two groups is that the Qur’anic interpretation, in some of its aspects, in addition to Islamic jurisprudence, is considered to be null and void, unless it is framed by Islam.
From this point of view, in the eyes of a number of Muslim jurists, philosophy was the wisdom and heresy of atheism if it was not accompanied by the religious framework and its text.
In fact, if we, as Muslims, agree on all sciences and beliefs, and rely on them to conduct our daily social relations, our scientific and practical activity, without reference to the Qur’an and the Sunna. Or even if we try to reconcile the two sides, we commit a great sin.
The great plague that made philosophy one of the most hostile sciences in a large group of jurists is to address two issues that are among the most intractable issues in Islamic jurisprudence:
The first issue: the confirmation of philosophers and their emphasis on the realization of reason in solving all the material-spiritual issues.
Second: their full faith in logic, as the most important means through which to reach the truth.
As is well known to most of the scholars of Islam, “Judgment only to God” (Yusuf 40), and prepare themselves governors by God’s command on the ground, then a Muslim, or non-Muslim residing in Muslim countries, cannot go out on the rules and teachings of the Koran and Sunnah The noble Prophet, and then added to the sources of other legislation, diligence, consensus and measurement. Therefore, there is no room for the work of reason and logic in issues affecting Muslims, especially since the five sources of legislation that we mentioned prepared by the majority of scholars have addressed the issues of life and the universe and all human. But the owners of the Salafist currents do not take only the first two sources, the book and the Sunnah, and all of them are considered to be innovations, misguidance and infidelity.
The two sources of legislation, the Qur’an and Sunnah, are the complete Islamic religion, and it is not permissible even to doubt their completeness, as evidenced by the verse and its affirmation: „Today I have perfected your religion for you, and have completed my favor upon you, and have approved Islam as a religion for you”.
Therefore, the three sources of legislation, consensus, diligence and measurement, we note that the legislation participated in the development, and still, people who have knowledge and knowledge of the issues of the Islamic religion, but issued by the (fatwa) or (jurisprudence) mostly based on the Logic), because there is no clear religious text or adequate interpretation that copies those fatwas.
The position of jurists of philosophy and philosophers:
Most of the jurists, who claim acceptance of the work of reason and logic, defend their rejection of the philosophical trend by saying that philosophers reject the idea of the existence of the divine self and return the creation of the universe to physical factors and link it to science. But here they cast the philosophers of all philosophical thinking (atheism), or (secular) as some like today describe them, without knowing the vast difference between the first charge and the second.
There is no doubt that the philosophers of the materialistic (dialectic) or existential, and most non-Muslims, are contrary to the idea of religions in general, and they do not care mainly that they disbelieve the scholars of this religion or that.
But what do we say about the Islamic philosophers who emerged since the ninth century AD, and continued to appear until the end of the nineteenth century?
These philosophers relied primarily on the use of linguistic and logical methods derived primarily from the Qur’an and Sunnah to confront the skeptics of Islam and its constants, until their philosophical thought developed and reached its peak after the Muslims were introduced to ancient Greek philosophy.
A generation of philosophers who differed in their approach and their search for linguists emerged from the study of written texts to the stage of proving the facts with mental evidence. The work of Islamic philosophical culmination at Ibn Rushd in Andalusia, which held the arbitration of the mind based on observations and experiments, preceded by the Canadian (who was named the first teacher, and (Farabi), who founded a school of thought full of the origins of the ideas of Aristotle.
In fact, he was the first Muslim philosopher who tried to use logic to study the Qur’an and tried to reach the truth by studying all religions. Al-Razi was subjected to a lot of rejection because of his ideas, which were characterized by a deviation towards the work of reason, and the refusal to involve religion in the field of human knowledge, and it came to the disbelief of a number of religious scholars.
What many scholars do not know is that the most famous sciences that crystallized in Islamic times is the science of philosophy, which was created by the best Muslim scholars who competed with Greek philosophy for their opinions, writings and research.
The researcher will not address some Muslim philosophers who have been accused of apostasy, atonement, torture, torture and mutilation at that stage. But before I finish my research, I would like to talk about an important stage in Islamic history and its subsequent repercussions on the nation.
It was one of the greatest productions of that era, which I talked about, the book (the rush of philosophers) of Imam Al-Ghazali, and this book has a significant impact and clear to the decline of philosophical thinking in Islamic thought, which Ibn-Rushd responded to the book (rushing). Unfortunately, the intellectual groups and sects used the political systems to repress the other opinion, and this is still practiced in our Islamic culture to this day.
The politicization of the time and the victory of the pro-Imam Al-Ghazali movement by the power of the ruling political power led to the fall of the nation in a period of intellectual stagnation, resulting in an outbreak of ignorance. In order to make matters worse, the door of ijtihad was closed, and the culture of transport spread. It was the reproduction of the past and the literal adherence to the jurisprudential text. The forensic science became the preferred one, and the importance of positivist sciences became more important. The nation was delayed scientifically and technically. All of this facilitated our fighting as Muslims and led to another division of the nation.
After we raised the main highlights of (wisdom) meanings in the Quranic text, and showing the common denominators between them and (love of wisdom – philosophy) classified from the sciences status.
It was not intended to try to prove the validity of our idea, or to impose solutions ready for readers and followers, but was intended to open the door wide for reflection and sanity to continue the journey to search for the truth, and not stop at the base of ready-made templates.
I admit at the end of this research, that I did not reach the answer I was seeking, and I may not go to it, but I am satisfied with the continuation of the (wisdom) and its people and those who worked hard and made mistakes.
- Mohamed Faidi, subject site, 15 May 2017. The definition is also agreed upon in all sources and references.
- The definition of Sufis, Sufis, Sufis and Sufis may have come from this Greek word, especially since the Sufi approach is based on the principle of philosophy in one form or another.
- Listet website, General information, 9 December 2016
- Samir Shekani, History Manufacturers – Confucius, Izz al-Din Publishers, Beirut, 1, 1, p. 362.
- Talal Meshaal, subject site, 17 February 2016.
- Abdel Hamid Saleh, website of the Arabic Encyclopedia, Bab Zoradsht.
- Zoroaster, Knowledge Network.
- Sahih Bukhari (c 5 / p 182) – and in Muslim (c 13 / p 127).
- Sahih Bukhari (c / 2 / p 620)
- The Qur’an referred to the Arabs as illiterate, and they meant that they replaced the religion of Abraham and what followed it with polytheism, kufr and worship of idols, and they were not the people of the book. The few commentators added that the Arabs did not learn to read and write, so they were called illiterates (Ibn Ashour, al-Tabari).
- Al-Qurtubi / Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Ahmed bin Abi Bakr bin Farah Al-Ansari Al-Khazraji Shams al-Din al-Qurtubi /, Tafseer al-Qurtubi, the investigation of Ahmad al-Bardouni and Ibrahim Atfish, the Egyptian book house – Cairo, second edition, 1964, vol.
- Ibn Ashour, Mohamed Eltaher Ben Mohamed Ben Mohamed Eltaher Ben Ashour Tunisian, the liberation of the good meaning and enlightenment of the new mind of the interpretation of the glorious book, Tunisian Publishing House – Tunisia, 1984, c, r
- Al-Qurtubi, op. Cit.
- Ibn Katheer, previous source.
- The previous source.
- Abdul Rahman bin Nasser bin Abdullah Al-Saadi, Tayseer Al-Rahman Al-Rahman in the interpretation of the words Manan, the investigation of Abdul Rahman bin Maala Luhaq, Foundation letter, 1, 2000, 1/453
- Ibn Ashour, op. Cit.
- Al – Qurtubi, previous source.
- Mohamed Sayed Tantawi, Intermediate Interpretation of the Holy Quran, Dar Nahdet Misr for Printing, Cairo, 1998.
- Tafsir al-Jalaleen, Jalal al-Din Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Muhadi and Jalal al-Din ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr al-Suyuti, Cairo.
- Al-Tabari, op. Cit.
- This means that the property of wisdom did not stop at a time or place, and therefore it is not confined to people without others, especially that God Almighty followed the verb (will) with the words (of slaves)
- Tafsir al – Jalalain, previous source.
- Al – Tabari, previous source.
- Ibn Katheer, previous source.
- Al-Qurtubi, previous source, c 14, p. 59.
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